European Critical Loads and Dynamic Modelling
The analysis of air pollution impacts on environment and health becomes ever more important for the support of air pollution policies also because the health risk op particulate matter has recently become more recognised . A number of air pollution abatement agreements will be reviewed and possibly revised in the near future. These include the UNECE Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone, the EC's National Emissions Ceiling Directive and the UNECE Protocol on Heavy Metals.
in support of the review of the first two agreements the report provides updated European maps of critical loads for acidification and eutrophication as well as novel results regarding the temporal delay of damage or recovery of acidification. While decreasing since the 1980s, the exceedance of critical loads for acidification remains a European-wide issue. 'Acid rain' may seem yesterday's problem, but the risk of acidification of ecosystems continues to demand attention. Based on data provided by 14 countries, 95% of the European forest soils are estimated to recover by 2030 provided depositions of sulphur and nitrogen are sufficiently reduced below critical loads.
It is noted that the exceedance of critical loads for eutrophication, and allied risks for biodiversity, remain high and widespread. Finally, regarding the Heavy Metals Protocol, the report summarizes recent CCE work on heavy metals. Perhaps unexpectedly, it turns out that critical loads of lead continue to be widely exceeded on a European scale. Part I of this report describes recent European work addressing both temporal and spatial environmental impacts of transboundary air pollution. Part II provides detailed national reports justifying methods and data applied by National Focal Centres to enable the CCE compilation of European maps of critical loads.
|Author(s)||Posch M ; Slootweg J ; Hettelingh J-P (eds)|