Calculation and mapping of critical loads in Europe
Methods for calculating the sensitivity of forest soils and surface waters to deposition of acidity and sulphur using a steady-state mass balance model are presented, along with maps of critical loads in Europa using these methods. This information is compared to present deposition levels to indicate areas where ecosystems are currently receiving high loads of these substances that contribute to observed ecosystem damage. The methods to calculate critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen simultaneously are presented.
Downing RJ, Hettelingh JP, de Smet PAM
RIVM Rapport 259101003